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Endnotes

[1] See, for example, Rohit Gupta and Stephanie R Morain. “Ethical allocation of future COVID-19 vaccines.” Journal of Medical Ethics 47, no. 3 (2021): 137-141; Rafael Dal-Ré and Victoria Camps. “Who should be vaccinated against COVID-19 first?.” Medicina Clínica (English Edition) 156, no. 4 (2021): 177-179.

[2] Given the fast-moving data environment, country vaccination data used in this report has been sourced from Our World in Data, and is replicated in the Appendix.

[3] “How much will vaccine inequity cost?” The Economist Intelligence Unit, August 25, 2021, https://www.eiu.com/n/delayed-vaccination-timelines-will-cost-the-global-economy-us2-3trn/.

[4] “Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Herd immunity, lockdowns and COVID-19,” World Health Organization, December 31, 2020, https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/herd-immunity-lockdowns-and-covid-19.

[5] Lionel Guetta-Jeanrenaud, Niclas Poitiers, and Reinhilde Veugelers, “A world divided: global vaccine trade and production,” Bruegel, July 20, 2021, https://www.bruegel.org/2021/07/a-world-divided-global-vaccine-trade-and-production/.

[6] Michael Leigh, “Vaccine diplomacy: soft power lessons from China and Russia?” Bruegel, April 27, 2021, https://www.bruegel.org/2021/04/vaccine-diplomacy-soft-power-lessons-from-china-and-russia/.

[7] “Production, politics and propaganda: How Beijing has shaped the international COVID immunization drive,” Nikkei Asia, October 12, 2021, https://asia.nikkei.com/static/vdata/chinavaccine-1/.

[8] “COVID-19 Vaccine Market Dashboard,” United Nations Children’s Fund, October 2021, https://www.unicef.org/supply/covid-19-vaccine-market-dashboard.

[9] Chad P. Bown and Thomas J. Bollyky, “How COVID-19 vaccine supply chains emerged in the midst of a pandemic,” Peterson International Institute Working paper 21-12, August 2021, https://www.piie.com/publications/working-papers/how-covid-19-vaccine-supply-chains-emerged-midst-pandemic.

[10] “Covid-19 deals tracker: 9.6 billion doses under contract,” Bloomberg, March 9, 2021, https://www.bloomberg.com/graphics/covid-vaccine-tracker-global-distribution/contracts-purchasing-agreements.html?sref=33gntO7X.

[11] Gianna Gayle Amul, Michael Ang, Diya Kraybill, Suan Ee Ong, Joanne Yoong. “Responses to COVID-19 in Southeast Asia: Diverse paths and ongoing challenges,” Asian Economic Policy Review (2021), https://doi.org/10.1111/aepr.12362.

[12] Seth Berkley. “COVAX: more than a beautiful idea,” The Lancet 398, no. 10298 (2021), https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01544-0.

[13] In March 2021, the Italian government blocked a shipment of approximately 250,000 doses of the AstraZeneca vaccine bound for Australia after the company failed to meet its contract commitments to the EU for vaccine production. The European Commission backed the decision of the Italian government. See “EU blocks export of AstraZeneca COVID-19 vaccines to Australia.” DW, March 4, 2021, https://www.dw.com/en/eu-blocks-export-of-astrazeneca-covid-19-vaccines-to-australia/a-56774362.

[14] Sanjeev Miglani, “India resumes vaccine exports as domestic stocks build up – officials.” Reuters, October 13, 2021, https://www.reuters.com/world/india/india-resumes-vaccine-exports-domestic-stocks-build-up-officials-2021-10-13/.

[15] Hannah Beech and Muktita Suhartono, “A mass inoculation campaign in Thailand stumbles amid a severe outbreak,” The New York Times. June 14, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/2021/06/14/world/thailand-shortage.html.

[16] “Japan to give millions more AstraZeneca shots to Asia,” Nikkei Asia, June 25, 2021, https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/COVID-vaccines/Japan-to-give-millions-more-AstraZeneca-shots-to-Asia.

[17] Elizabeth Cheung and Tony Cheung, “Hong Kong to donate 7.5 million doses of AstraZeneca vaccine to developing countries,” South China Morning Post, October 12, 2021, https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/health-environment/article/3152034/hong-kongs-quarantine-policy-big-reason-city-has.

[18] “China COVID-19 Vaccine Tracker,” Bridge Consulting (Beijing), October 11, 2021, https://bridgebeijing.com/our-publications/our-publications-1/china-covid-19-vaccines-tracker/.

[19] “UK begins donating millions of COVID-19 vaccines to countries overseas including the Philippines,” UK Government, July 28, 2021, https://www.gov.uk/government/news/uk-begins-donating-millions-of-covid-19-vaccines-to-countries-overseas-including-the-philippines.

[20] Takashi Nakano, Fumi Matsumoto and Jun Suzuki, “From Australia to Thailand, vaccine swap deals help ease shortages,” Nikkei Asia, October 1, 2021, https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/COVID-vaccines/From-Australia-to-Thailand-vaccine-swap-deals-help-ease-shortages.

[21] Paulina Duran, “Australia purchases Pfizer vaccines from Poland as COVID-19 infections spike,” Reuters, August 15, 2021, https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/australia-purchases-pfizer-vaccines-poland-covid-19-infections-spike-2021-08-14/.

[22] Alexa Cook, “Jacinda Ardern announces second COVID-19 vaccine deal with Denmark, country set to receive extra 500,000 Pfizer vaccinations,” News Hub, September 12, 2021, https://www.newshub.co.nz/home/new-zealand/2021/09/arden-announces-second-covid-19-vaccine-deal-with-denmark-country-set-to-receive-extra-500-000-pfizer-vaccinations.html.

[23] Coleman Beaty, “Japan and vaccine diplomacy,” Center for Strategic & International Studies, August 9, 2021, https://www.csis.org/blogs/new-perspectives-asia/japan-and-vaccine-diplomacy.

[24] Thomas Shattuck, “Vaccines give Taiwan upper hand,” Taipei Times, July 30, 2021, https://www.taipeitimes.com/News/editorials/archives/2021/07/30/2003761702.

[25] Sebastian Strangio, “What explains Cambodia’s COVID-19 vaccine distribution success?” The Diplomat, September 8, 2021, https://thediplomat.com/2021/09/what-explains-cambodias-covid-19-vaccine-distribution-success/.

[26] Rebecca Forman, Soleil Shah, Patrick Jeurissen, Mark Jit, and Elias Mossialos. “COVID-19 vaccine challenges: What have we learned so far and what remains to be done?” Health Policy (Amsterdam) 125, no. 5 (2021): 553-67.

[27] Jeffrey Hutton and Raul Dancel, “Logistics, regulatory bottlenecks loom as South-east Asia embarks on Covid-19 vaccine roll-out,” Strait Times, February 7, 2021, https://www.straitstimes.com/asia/se-asia/as-south-east-asia-embarks-on-covid-19-vaccine-rollout-logistics-regulatory-bottlenecks.

[28] Cyn-Young Park, Kijin Kim, Matthias Helble, and Susann Roth, “Getting ready for the COVID-19 vaccine rollout,” ADB Policy Brief no. 166, February 2021, https://dx.doi.org/10.22617/BRF210071-2.

[29] “Vaccination Nation: Unmasking Cambodia’s Vaccination Success,” Mekong Strategic Partners, August 2021, https://www.mekongstrategic.com/post/vaccination-nation.

[30] Sam Macdonald, “Learning from Cambodia’s COVID-19 response,” Foreign Policy in Focus, September 22, 2021, https://fpif.org/learning-from-cambodias-covid-19-response/; Adrien Chorn and Jonathan Stromseth, “COVID-19 comes to Cambodia,” Brookings, May 19, 2021, https://www.brookings.edu/blog/order-from-chaos/2021/05/19/covid-19-comes-to-cambodia/.

[31] “Ten threats to global health in 2019,” WHO, https://www.who.int/news-room/spotlight/ten-threats-to-global-health-in-2019.

[32] Alexandria Caple et al. “Interrogating COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy in the Philippines with a nationwide open-access online survey.” medRxiv (2021), https://doi.org/10.1101/2021.09.11.21263428.

[33] Kirsten McCaffery et al. “Disparities in COVID-19 related knowledge, attitudes, beliefs and behaviours by health literacy.” medRxiv (2020), https://doi.org/10.17061/phrp30342012.

[34] Fides A Del Castillo. “Changing the COVID-19 vaccine narrative to dispel vaccine hesitancy.” Journal of Public Health 43, no. 3 (2021), https://doi.org/10.1093/pubmed/fdab201.

[35] Khairulanwar Zaini and Hoang Thi Ha, “Understanding the selective hesitancy towards Chinese vaccines in Southeast Asia,” ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute Perspective, September 1, 2021, https://www.iseas.edu.sg/articles-commentaries/iseas-perspective/2021-115-understanding-the-selective-hesitancy-towards-chinese-vaccines-in-southeast-asia-by-khairulanwar-zaini-and-hoang-thi-ha/; Chris Baraniuk. “What do we know about China’s covid-19 vaccines?” BMJ 373 (2021), https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.n912.

[36] Jamie Smyth, “Australia vaccine missteps keep it in the grip of Covid,” Financial Times, August 4, 2021, https://www.ft.com/content/3637a08d-f9cb-436e-9053-5563a29b1edd.

[37] Yatun Sastramidjaja and Amirul Adli Rosli, “Tracking the swelling COVID-19 vaccine chatter on TikTok in Indonesia,” ISEAS-Yusof Ishak Institute Perspective, June 17, 2021, https://www.iseas.edu.sg/articles-commentaries/iseas-perspective/2020-82-tracking-the-swelling-covid-19-vaccine-chatter-on-tiktok-in-indonesia-by-yatun-sastramidjaja-and-amirul-adli-rosli/.

[38] Akane Okutsu, Cliff Venzon and Erwida Maulia, “Indonesia and Philippines face persistent anti-vax hurdle,” Nikkei Asia, September 14, 2021, https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Asia-Insight/Indonesia-and-Philippines-face-persistent-anti-vax-hurdle.

[39] Michael Smith and Emma Connors, “Hong Kong and Singapore part ways over borders,” Australia Financial Review, September 3, 2021, https://www.afr.com/world/asia/hong-kong-and-singapore-part-ways-over-borders-20210903-p58oil; “New Zealand, Australia travel bubble suspended for longer amid Delta outbreaks,” Reuters, September 17, 2021, https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/new-zealand-australia-travel-bubble-suspended-longer-amid-delta-outbreaks-2021-09-17/.

[40] “Australia partners with Vietnam on vaccine rollout,” Minister for Foreign Affairs, Australia, August 26, 2021, https://www.foreignminister.gov.au/minister/marise-payne/media-release/australia-partners-vietnam-vaccine-rollout.

[41] “$9 Billion ADB facility to help developing member countries access and distribute COVID-19 vaccines,” Asia Development Bank, December 11, 2020, https://www.adb.org/news/9-billion-adb-facility-help-members-access-and-distribute-covid-19-vaccines.

[42] Chang-Chuan Chan and Chi-hsin Sally Chen, “The Taiwan model of COVID-19 control and its global implication,” Taiwan Strategists (2020) no. 6, https://www.pf.org.tw/files/6717/83781915-F11B-49C3-BC7A-16A6B191EBD3.

[43] Pauline Yeung, “Networks for a Resilient Future: An Asian Perspective.” Asia Business Council, August 2021.

[44] EK Yeoh et al. “Government response measures to COVID-19 – key policy lessons: From experiences of six middle/high income jurisdictions in the western Pacific region in the early stage of the pandemic,” Health System Impact Subgroup of the COVID-19 Social Science Working Group, World Health Organization, 2021.

[45] Kailu Wang et al. “Change of willingness to accept COVID-19 vaccine and reasons of vaccine hesitancy of working people at different waves of local epidemic in Hong Kong, China: Repeated cross-sectional surveys.” Vaccines 9, no. 1 (2021): 62; Martin CS Wong et al. “Acceptance of the COVID-19 vaccine based on the health belief model: A population-based survey in Hong Kong.” Vaccine 39, no. 7 (2021): 1148-1156.

[46] Timothy McLaughlin, “The place with surprisingly high vaccine hesitancy,” The Atlantic, April 1, 2021, https://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2021/04/hong-kong-trust-vaccine/618469/.

[47] Sammy Heung, “Hong Kong developers dangle another free flat as vaccination incentive, with just one dose required this time,” South China Morning Post, July 30, 2021, https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/hong-kong-economy/article/3143176/coronavirus-hong-kong-developers-dangle-another.

[48] Bruce Einhorn, Thomas Shum, and Olivia Tam, “Hong Kong recovery imperilled by elderly saying no to vaccine,” Bloomberg, August 6, 2021, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/articles/2021-08-05/fearful-elderly-refusing-vaccines-threaten-hong-kong-s-recovery?sref=33gntO7X.

[49] Hong Kong Vaccination Dashboard, HKSARG, https://www.covidvaccine.gov.hk/en/dashboard.

[50] Tony Cheung and Gigi Choy, “Hong Kong leader lobbies Beijing for border reopening, asks for meeting of local, mainland medical experts,” South China Morning Post, September 8, 2021, https://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/health-environment/article/3147965/coronavirus-hong-kong-leader-lobbies-beijing.

[51] John Power, “Vaccine hesitancy puts Asia’s ‘zero-Covid’ economies like Hong Kong, Australia in herd immunity stalemate,” South China Morning Post, May 23, 2021, https://www.scmp.com/week-asia/health-environment/article/3134408/vaccine-hesitancy-puts-asias-zero-covid-economies-hong.

[52] Heather Humphries, “The role of public communications and engagement in a pandemic,” Ethos no. 22, June 29, 2021, https://www.csc.gov.sg/articles/the-role-of-public-communications-and-engagement-in-a-pandemic.

[53] Stephanie Phang and Livia Yap, “Overcoming vaccine hesitancy, Singapore style,” Bloomberg, September 16, 2021, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/newsletters/2021-09-16/overcoming-vaccine-hesitancy-singapore-style?sref=33gntO7X.

[54] Gan Kim Yong, Lawrence Wong and Ong Ye Kung, “Living normally, with Covid-19: Task force ministers on how Singapore is drawing road map for new normal,” The Strait Times, June 24, 2021, https://www.straitstimes.com/opinion/living-normally-with-covid-19.

[55] Wycliffe Enli Wei, Wei Keat Tan, Alex Richard Cook, Li Yang Hsu, Yik Ying Teo, and Vernon Jian Ming Lee. “Living with COVID-19: The road ahead.” Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore 50, no. 8 (2021): 619-628.

[56] Clara Chong, “S’pore’s Covid-19 strategy not a ‘flip-flop’, helps prevent massive number of deaths: Ong Ye Kung,” Strait Times, October 18, 2021, https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/spores-covid-19-strategy-not-a-flip-flop-helps-prevent-massive-number-of-deaths-ong-ye.

[57] Simon J. Evenett, Bernard Hoekman, Nadia Rocha, and Michele Ruta. “The Covid-19 vaccine production club: will value chains temper nationalism?” Policy Research Working Paper no. 9565 (2021). World Bank, Washington, DC., https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/handle/10986/35244.

[58] Wanyuan Song, “Covid-19 vaccines: Has China made more than other countries combined?” BBC, October 10, 2021, https://www.bbc.com/news/58808889. Anna Nishino, “China’s global vaccine gambit: Production, politics, and propaganda,” Nikkei Asia. October 12, 2021, https://asia.nikkei.com/static/vdata/chinavaccine-1/.

[59] For instance, China’s COVID-19 diplomacy featuring the provision of medical aid and vaccines has been subject to discussion; see ChinaPower Team, “Is China’s Covid-19 Diplomacy Succeeding?” Center for Strategic & International Studies, updated September 30, 2021, https://chinapower.csis.org/china-covid-medical-vaccine-diplomacy/.

[60] “COVID-19: Make it the Last Pandemic,” Independent Panel for Pandemic Preparedness & Response, May 2021, https://theindependentpanel.org/mainreport/; Gordon Brown and Daniel Susskind. “International cooperation during the COVID-19 pandemic.” Oxford Review of Economic Policy 36, no. Supplement_1 (2020): S64-S76; Marc-Alain Widdowson, “The unfair distribution of vaccines: An embarrassing Deja-vu,” Institute of Tropical Medicine, January 25, 2021, https://www.itg.be/E/Article/vaccinongelijkheid-deja-vu.

[61] Chad P. Bown and Thomas J. Bollyky, “How COVID-19 vaccine supply chains emerged in the midst of a pandemic,” Peterson International Institute Working paper 21-12, August 2021, https://www.piie.com/publications/working-papers/how-covid-19-vaccine-supply-chains-emerged-midst-pandemic; “COVID-19 Vaccine Manufacturing Agreements,” Global Health Centre, Graduate Institute Geneva, 2021, https://www.knowledgeportalia.org/covid19-vaccine-manufacturing.

[62] “Janssen visits GC Pharma plant to spark a consignment speculation,” Pulse News Korea, September 29, 2021, https://pulsenews.co.kr/view.php?year=2021&no=926038.

[63] “Japanese drugmaker starts AstraZeneca vaccine production,” The Japan Times, March 12, 2021, https://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2021/03/12/national/astrazeneca-vaccine-japan/; “Japan to purchase 150 mln doses of Takeda-produced Novavax vaccines – drugmaker,” Reuters, September 7, 2021, https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/japan-purchase-150-mln-doses-takeda-produced-novavax-vaccines-drugmaker-2021-09-07/.

[64] Ludwig Burger and Caroline Copley, “BioNTech to build mRNA vaccine manufacturing site in Singapore,” Reuters, May 10, 2021, https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/biontech-build-mrna-manufacturing-site-singapore-2021-05-10/.

[65] Marimi Kishimoto, “Thai king-owned biotech starts production of AstraZeneca vaccine,” Nikkei Asia, June 4, 2021, https://asia.nikkei.com/Spotlight/Coronavirus/COVID-vaccines/Thai-king-owned-biotech-starts-production-of-AstraZeneca-vaccine.

[66] Primus Dorimulu, Maria Fatima Bona, “Indonesia administers Sinovac vaccine manufactured by Bio Farma,” Jakarta Globe, February 19, 2021, https://jakartaglobe.id/news/indonesia-administers-sinovac-vaccine-manufactured-by-bio-farma; Tom Allard and Kate Lamb, “Indonesia in talks with WHO to become global vaccine hub: minister,” Reuters, September 16, 2021, https://www.reuters.com/world/asia-pacific/exclusive-indonesia-talks-with-who-become-global-vaccine-hub-minister-2021-09-16/.

[67] “Taiwan says AstraZeneca COVID shot production talks fell through,” Reuters, June 10, 2021, https://www.reuters.com/business/healthcare-pharmaceuticals/taiwan-says-astrazeneca-covid-shot-production-talks-fell-through-2021-06-10/.

[68] Makoto Kosaka et al. “Delayed COVID-19 vaccine roll-out in Japan.” The Lancet 397, no. 10292 (2021), https://doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(21)01220-4.

[69] Stephen Croucher, Doug Ashwell and Jo Cullinane, “New Zealand has ramped up vaccination rates, but too many people remain concerned about vaccine safety,” The Conversation, September 20, 2021, https://theconversation.com/new-zealand-has-ramped-up-vaccination-rates-but-too-many-people-remain-concerned-about-vaccine-safety-167984.

[70] The WHO’s interim lists of National Regulatory Authority evaluation results can be found at https://www.who.int/initiatives/who-listed-authority-reg-authorities; See “List of National Regulatory Authorities (NRAs) operating at maturity level 3 (ML3) and maturity level 4 (ML4) (as benchmarked against WHO Global Benchmarking Tool (GBT),” https://www.who.int/initiatives/who-listed-authority-reg-authorities/MLA4 and “List of vaccine producing countries with functional NRAs,” https://www.who.int/initiatives/who-listed-authority-reg-authorities/list-of-vaccine-prod-countries.

[71] Stephanie Nolen, “Here’s why developing countries can make mRNA vaccines,” The New York Times, October 22, 2021, https://www.nytimes.com/interactive/2021/10/22/science/developing-country-covid-vaccines.html.

[72] The detailed explanation on sources of COVID-19 dataset maintained by Our World in Data can be found at https://github.com/owid/covid-19-data/tree/master/public/data.

[73] Hannah Ritchie, Edouard Mathieu, Lucas Rodés-Guirao, Cameron Appel, Charlie Giattino, Esteban Ortiz-Ospina, Joe Hasell, Bobbie Macdonald, Diana Beltekian and Max Roser, “Coronavirus Pandemic (COVID-19),” OurWorldInData.org, 2020, https://ourworldindata.org/coronavirus.


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